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UN calls for urgent action against human trafficking

In his message for the Day, UN chief António Guterres called human trafficking “a heinous violation of fundamental human rights and freedoms.” He said that this crime preys on vulnerability and thrives in times of conflict and instability, with more and more people targeted today. 

“The majority of detected victims are women and children, many of whom suffer brutal violence, forced labour, and horrific sexual exploitation and abuse,” the Secretary-General said, noting that traffickers continue to operate with impunity and their crimes are receiving “not nearly enough attention.” 

“We must strengthen law enforcement to bring criminals that commodify human beings to justice. And we must do more to help survivors rebuild their lives,” he added, calling for joint efforts to “build a world where no one can ever be bought, sold, or exploited.” 

Step up counter-trafficking efforts

According to the 2022 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, published by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), more than 50 per cent of cases of human trafficking are brought forward by victims or their families, with authorities struggling to detect and protect trafficking victims, which is a concerning new trend compared to previous years. 

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The findings also show that women and girls, who account for around 60 percent of detected victims, are more likely to suffer sexual exploitation and higher levels of violence at the hands of their captors, while men and boys are being increasingly exploited for forced labour and criminal activities.

The campaign for the World Day Against Trafficking in Persons 2023, led by UNODC, aims to raise awareness of the current disturbing developments and trends, asking governments, law enforcement, public services and civil society to strengthen prevention, identify and support victims, and end impunity.

A crime in plain sight

Millions of victims of human trafficking are going unnoticed around the world, even though many walk among us every day – on street corners, at construction sites, or in factories and public venues. 

The specificity of this crime is such that many victims cannot call for help, UNODC said. Having no legal status in a country where they come in search of a better life, victims become shackled by the false promises of traffickers.

“Human trafficking is a crime that hides not just in the shadows but in plain sight,” UNODC’s Executive Director Ghada Waly said in her video message for the Day.

She called for stepping up efforts to reach every trafficking victim, including by strengthening detection, investigating cases, and prosecuting the criminals involved. More action is also needed to identify, assist, and support survivors. 

This can be achieved through consolidated work of all sectors of society – from healthcare, to social services to law enforcement, she said.

“The general public can help too, by reporting suspicious activities and services that may exploit trafficking victims, while the voice of civil society is crucial in raising awareness, as well as mobilizing and providing support to those in need,” the UNODC chief added.


Niger: Security Council strongly condemns ‘efforts to unconstitutionally change’ Government

The members of the Security Council strongly condemned the efforts to unconstitutionally change the legitimate government of the Republic of Niger on 26 July 2023. 

Earlier this week, the demand to release the President of Niger was voiced by the UN Secretary-General António Guterres. Late on Wednesday, a group of Nigerien military officers made a television announcement declaring a coup, after members of the president’s own guard detained him inside his offices in the capital city of Niamey. According to news reports, the attempted coup did not have the backing of the entire military, but the head of the army announced that he supported the move.

In their statement, the Security Council members expressed concern over the negative impact of unconstitutional changes of government in the region, increase in terrorist activities and the dire socio-economic situation. They also underlined their regret over the developments in Niger, which undermine efforts at consolidating the institutions of governance and peace in that country.

Support to international formats

The Council expressed support for the efforts of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union (AU) and the United Nations and welcomed their statements reaffirming their opposition to any seizure of power by unconstitutional means, as well as the calls to the forces involved to refrain from violence, hand over power and return to their barracks.  

Reiterating support for efforts to reverse unconstitutional government changes, the Council backed ECOWAS and the AU in strengthening governance and normative frameworks. In solidarity with the people of Niger, the Council emphasized the importance of protecting civilians and providing humanitarian assistance during this challenging time.

INTERVIEW: Heatwaves endanger workers and reduce productivity

Data from the UN’s World Meteorological Organization reveals this July is set to be the hottest month ever recorded. 

Heatwaves not only threaten the environment but create additional obstacles for countries attempting to achieve sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all, the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 8, according to the ILO’s Nicolas Maître.

Workers construct a road in Tajikistan.
© ADB/Nozim Kalandarov

Workers construct a road in Tajikistan.

How do you define heat stress at work, known as occupational heat stress? 

Nicolas Maître: Occupational heat stress describes a situation where it’s too hard to work, or at least too hard to work at a normal intensity. It depends not only on temperature, but also on humidity and solar radiation. It endangers the safety and health of workers by increasing the risk of injuries and heat-related illnesses. 

Haitian tailors work on a production line in a clothing plant.
© ILO/Marcel Crozet

Haitian tailors work on a production line in a clothing plant.

At what temperature does heat stress start to occur?  

Nicolas Maître: The estimates show that work productivity slows down at temperatures above 24-26 degrees Celsius (75-79 Fahrenheit). At 33-34°C (91-93°F), worker performance can drop up to 50 per cent in physically demanding jobs. It can occur in shade, and even inside some factories. If the factory has no air conditioning and employees are expected to operate heavy machinery or wear protective clothing, then it can occur in these contexts, too. 

Broadly speaking, agriculture and construction are the most affected sectors. The ILO estimates that globally, productivity declines due to the impacts of climate change, with agriculture accounting for 60 per cent of this loss. But heat stress can occur in all physically demanding jobs that require employees to work directly under the sun, for long hours, or while wearing protective clothing. 

A farmer waters her garden in north-central Burkina Faso.
© WFP/Cheick Omar Bandaogo

A farmer waters her garden in north-central Burkina Faso.

Who is most affected by heat stress? 

Nicolas Maître: It affects those with the least capacity for adaptation. It’s a matter of social justice, and it’s a matter of reducing inequalities among countries, as well as within countries. 

Increasing the number of breaks, improving access to water, adapting working hours, and rotating workers are all effective heat-reducing measures. Adapting the clothing of workers, drinking regularly, and having routine self-health checks are also beneficial.

A domestic worker sweeps the street in an upscale neighbourhood in Delhi, India.
© ILO/Marcel Crozet

A domestic worker sweeps the street in an upscale neighbourhood in Delhi, India.

What can temperate countries learn from the adaption measures of hot countries?

Nicolas Maître: Evidence suggests that it’s becoming a real problem for temperate countries, but the problem is not the same. In Southeast Asia, for example, the problem is present year-round. In Europe, it’s a problem that primarily occurs during summer heat waves. I believe adaptation measures

 should consider these differences. While we implement sustainable adaptation measures in hot countries, we might think of measures triggered by a specific temperature in temperate countries. 

SDG Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
United Nations

SDG Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

The role of the government in establishing these measures is very important. This relates to triggering situational adaption measures, but governments can also create a regulatory framework within the countries to tackle the issue of heat stress. It might be expensive, but the loss of productivity is also expensive. 

UN: Why do you think heat stress has received so much media attention in recent years?  

Nicolas Maître: When we started, there was very little research and media coverage was not the same. Now we see it’s all over the media. I think it is because it’s unavoidable, it’s here. We see our colleagues, our friends, and our families experiencing the issue. 

For more information on the ILO report, click here.

This interview has been edited for clarity and length. 


OHCHR condemns executions in Kuwait and Singapore, pushes for global ban

“We deplore the multiple executions carried out this week in Kuwait and Singapore and oppose the death penalty under all circumstances,” said OHCHR Spokesperson Seif Magango.

Immediate moratorium

“We urge Kuwait and Singapore to immediately establish a moratorium on executions and join the more than 170 States that have so far abolished or introduced a moratorium on the death penalty either in law or in practice,” he added.

The Kuwaiti government released a statement on Thursday saying five prisoners had been executed at the country’s Central Prison, including a man with reported ties to the ISIL terrorist group, who was convicted of the bombing of a Shia Mosque in Kuwait in 2015, which saw 27 people killed and over 200 injured. 

According to Kuwaiti prosecutors, three men convicted of murder and one convicted of drug dealing, were among those executed.

Singapore: First woman executed in nearly 20 years

In Singapore, a man and woman were both executed on unrelated charges of drug trafficking this week at Singapore’s Changi Prison.

Saridewi Djamani, the 45-year-old woman sentenced to death in 2018 for the trafficking of 1.05 ounces of heroin, is reportedly the first woman executed in Singapore since the 2004 execution of 36-year-old Yen May Woen, also following a conviction for drugs trafficking. 

“The death penalty is inconsistent with the fundamental right to life and to the right to be free from torture and other inhuman treatment and should be expunged as a punishment from all laws everywhere,” said Mr. Magango.

UNHCR urges solidarity with Burkina Faso’s victims of extremist violence

“We’re urgently appealing for all States to refrain from forcibly returning any individuals originating from the regions in Burkina Faso where there is an ongoing crisis,” said Elizabeth Tan, UNHCR Director of International Protection.

Speaking in Geneva, Ms. Tan highlighted “killings, forced disappearances, torture and kidnappings”, while in several instances, civilians had been targeted and killed, resulting in mass civilian casualties.

Spike in needs

Humanitarians have warned about mass internal displacement in Burkina Faso caused by non-state armed groups since 2015, “but it’s in 2022 that we’ve really seen large increase in the number of displaced in the country, and that is due to the increased activities by extremist, violent, violent extremist groups as well as increasing humanitarian needs”, the UNHCR official explained.

Latest UN estimates indicate that 4.7 million people across the country are now in need of humanitarian assistance in the west African nation, which is more than 20 per cent of the country’s entire population.

Violence and conflict have also destroyed critical infrastructure and impacted state services and institutions, including in conflict-affected areas.

The humanitarian situation is especially severe for people living in towns that have been blockaded by violent extremist groups, including large numbers of internally displaced people.

Refugees from Burkina Faso arrive in Togo after fleeing their country due to violence.
© UNHCR/Fidélia Bohissou

Refugees from Burkina Faso arrive in Togo after fleeing their country due to violence.

Youngsters targeted

Children have not been spared serious human rights violations, including forced recruitment by armed groups, child labour “as well as other types of violence, abuse, exploitation and gender-based violence”, Ms. Tan told journalists at a scheduled briefing.

The number of school closures has increased from approximately 3,000 in November 2021 to 6,334 schools as of 31 March 2023.

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The majority of displaced children are unable to attend classes at all. Early and child marriage is prevalent and forced marriages continue to be reported. Half of all children in Burkina Faso are estimated to be exposed to gender-based violence or mistreatment, with the estimate as high as 82 per cent for girls.

Ongoing violence and displacement have also left many women vulnerable to sexual violence and have restricted services available to survivors.

Border refuge

In addition to the more than two million people internally displaced in Burkina Faso, as of June this year – “making this one of the worst internal displacement crises on the African continent” – the UNHCR official added that 67,000 people from Burkina Faso have sought refuge in neighbouring countries including Mali, Niger, Cote d’Ivoire, Togo, Benin and Ghana.

Fighting is believed to have killed thousands and placed vast numbers at risk of abuse by armed groups, including reportedly being whipped and raped while fleeing their villages. 

“The principle of non-refoulement must be respected and upheld. That means that no-one should be forcibly returned to places where their lives, freedom or human rights are at risk. So, UNHCR calls on all countries to allow civilians fleeing Burkina Faso to access their territories.”

During visit to Greece, UN official calls for enhanced refugee protection

During the visit, Ms. Triggs mentioned that one of the worst shipwrecks in the Mediterranean happened just over a month ago. 

Protecting refugee rights 

“The Pylos tragedy and the other devastating tragedies in the Mediterranean underscore the primacy of saving lives and protecting the rights of people forced to flee. This was my message to the authorities,” she said. 

She emphasized the criticality of safeguarding access to territory and asylum, ensuring a predictable and well-coordinated search-and-rescue system, and the need for responsibility-sharing and solidarity measures among States. 

Ms. Triggs also raised concern about reports of summary forced returns, stressing the urgency of effective investigations and measures for prevention and remediation. 

Noting that Greece and other countries at the external borders of the European Union (EU) face significant pressures in responding to irregular movements, she reiterated “the need to move towards a border and asylum management system that works for all States, while ensuring that those who seek asylum can access it and refugees are protected.” 

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Safe pathways for refugees 

Beyond the EU, she advocated for addressing the root causes and drivers of displacement through a routes-based approach and providing robust assistance to countries of origin and transit. 

 Ms. Triggs cited the establishment of the National Emergency Response Mechanism for Unaccompanied Minors as a best practice for the protection of children, and the relocation of unaccompanied children from Greece to various countries across Europe, as an example of responsibility-sharing in action. 

She also highlighted the need for safe pathways and schemes for refugees and migrants to offer alternatives to the perilous journeys they often undertake.  

Integration efforts in Greece 

During her time in Greece, Triggs also visited a refugee centre and heard directly from asylum-seekers hosted there. 

While efforts have been made to improve conditions, the centre remains a highly securitized environment, leading to difficulties for asylum-seekers and refugees, particularly in accessing crucial services like healthcare and psychological support. 

Ms. Triggs also met with civil society organizations, discussing the essential services they provide and the difficulties they have. 

She conveyed UNHCR’s “praise for the dedication and hard work of NGOs in Greece” and renewed the agency’s commitment to support civil society in its activities for the protection of refugees. 

 While appreciating Greece’s efforts to enhance refugee integration in line with its National Integration Strategy, which enable 68,000 refugees to contribute to the communities hosting them, Triggs urged that these initiatives continue. 

 Such efforts include providing access to employment, addressing skills gaps, and streamlining documentation and procedural requirements for refugees. 

UN missions battle old and emerging threats, to protect civilians

Climate change and conflict

Briefing the Security Council, Lt. Gen. Mohan Subramanian, Force Commander of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) recalled when dykes collapsed in Unity State in October 2022, leading to flash floods not seen in nearly six decades, displacing over 170,000 people to the provincial capital Bentiu.

If left unaddressed the floods could have led to the death of over 40,000 IDPs (internally-displaced persons) he said, adding that the breach was detected by a dyke monitoring patrol.  

“Even heavy engineering equipment could not reach the breach, but UNMISS personnel – civilian and military – and the local community stood there, in a human chain; reached the breach, filled sandbags and closed the breach,” he said.

Their actions saved at least 40,000 lives, Lt. Gen. Subramanian added.

He also described practical aspects of the UNMISS protection mandate, which includes engagement with the Government and national forces, including joint deployments in potential conflict areas; short and long-term patrols; and when required, deployment of quick reaction forces to protect those in need.

Damaging disinformation

Lt. Gen. Otávio Rodrigues De Miranda Filho, Force Commander of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), told ambassadors that the Mission’s primary concern is the country’s weak justice system and lack of capacity of its security forces.

The level of impunity is too high, he said, adding that illegal armed groups often target civilians and the most vulnerable in a “cycle of retaliatory violence.”  

He said it was vital to raise the issue of protection with political leaders, establish safe civilian spaces, deploy air assets and conduct joint operations with national forces, where possible.

The Force Commander also described evolving new threats, especially the spread of disinformation, which has endangered civilians and also provoked attacks against peacekeepers.

Manipulation through the information domain has eroded support, making it much more difficult to carry out patrols in the protection of civilians, he said, adding, “we must understand that we are going to operate in a hostile environment with a high possibility of armed confrontation.”

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Enabling dialogue

Maj. Gen. Aroldo Lázaro Sáenz, Head of Mission and Force Commander of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), said that at present, there is no clear imminent physical threat to civilians, and the Force’s focus is on prevention.

That is best achieved through robust deployment across the area of operation, situational awareness, and dialogue and engagement with the parties to the conflict, he said, noting the establishment of a tripartite forum.

This is the only venue where Lebanese and Israeli forces can meet and address security concerns.

“The forum is the cornerstone of UNIFIL’s coordination and liaison mechanisms and a vital platform for de-confliction, confidence-building and conflict-prevention between the parties which remain technically at war,” he said.

He also highlighted UNIFIL’s liaison branch of unarmed observers, who are deployed north and south of the Blue Line and maintain regular contact with the Israel Defense Forces and Lebanese Armed Forces on the ground.

About the Missions

UNMISS was established by the Security Council in 2011, following South Sudan’s independence from Sudan, to help maintain peace and stability at the time when the young nation faced significant internal conflicts and humanitarian challenges. As of June 2022, the Mission’s total personnel – civil and uniformed – numbered 17,954, including 13,221 troops and 1,468 police.

MONUSCO, which stands for UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was established by the Security Council in 2010, to help address the complex and ongoing conflicts in the DRC and to help stabilize the region. It is one of the largest and most complex peacekeeping operations in the world. Its total personnel, as of February, stands at 17,753, including 12,379 troops, 1,597 police, and 330 staff officers.

Established in 1978, UNIFIL’s primary mandate is to ensure peace and security along the Blue Line, the delineation of the Israel-Lebanon border. It also supports humanitarian assistance to those in need. As of November 2022, the Mission is composed of about 10,000 military and 800 civilian personnel.  

World entering a ‘humanitarian doom loop’, warns UN food aid official

At a press briefing in New York, Carl Skau, Deputy Executive Director of the World Food Programme, said that the collapse of the Black Sea Grain Initiative after Russia ended its engagement was “regrettable, to say the least.”

Under the initiative, WFP shipped more than 725,000 tons of grain, relieving hunger in some of the hardest hit corners of the world, including Afghanistan, the Horn of Africa and Yemen.

“WFP relied on Ukraine’s competitively priced, accessible and high-quality source of wheat,” Mr. Skau said, adding “despite the war and thanks to this accord, Ukraine remained WFP’s biggest supplier of wheat in 2022.”

World needs unimpeded access to food

“Losing this source now is of great concern, of course, as this is really about keeping the barn door open, just when millions are knocking on it. The world needs unimpeded access to major food supplies.”

According to news reports, Russian President Vladimir Putin promised to supply free grain to six African nations at a summit held earlier in the week, following the collapse of the Initiative.

In response to a question from a journalist, Mr. Skau said that WFP “has not been in talks with Russia about any free grain.”

“We work in full cost recovery, so we don’t service any country with in-kind. We have not been approached for any such discussion so far,” he added, noting that the UN agency buys grain where it is the cheapest and fastest to get to its beneficiaries.

A crippling funding crisis

Mr. Skau went on to note that some of the countries where the needs are the greatest, are also where funding for relief operations are declining, forcing humanitarians to reduce or cut assistance.

“In WFP’s case, we have to make impossible trade-offs of prioritizing assistance,” he said, adding that the UN agency is in the midst of “a crippling funding crisis, which is forcing us to scale back life-saving assistance right as acute hunger is hitting record levels.”

At least 38 of WFP’s 86 country operations have experienced cuts or are planning to scale down food assistance programmes, including in Afghanistan, Syria, Palestine, Yemen, and several countries in West Africa.

We are entering a humanitarian doom loop – where we save people who are starving, at the cost of millions of others falling closer into that same category
– Carl Skau, WFP 

Entering a ‘humanitarian doom loop’

“Less funding means WFP is forced to stop assisting people who are only in the category of ‘crisis level’, this is so that we can save those who are literally starving – the category of catastrophic hunger,” said. Mr. Skau.

He explained that due to these cuts, people at “crisis levels” of hunger, will fall into “catastrophic levels”, further raising humanitarian needs in the future if the food security situation globally does not improve.

“We are entering a humanitarian doom loop – where we save people who are starving, at the cost of millions of others falling closer into that same category.”

Call to prioritize funding

Around 345 million people are at an acute state of food insecurity, while hundreds of millions more are at risk of worsening hunger, on the back of climate change impacts, natural disasters, food price increases, economic slowdown, and conflict and insecurity.

Mr. Skau called on world leaders to prioritize funding for humanitarian response, enhance coordination with aid organizations, and address the root causes that cause these crises.

First Person: ‘Shocked’ into hepatitis C treatment in South Africa

Koketso Mukubani now works as a Community Linkage Officer for the UN Office on Drugs and Crime-supported South African Network of People who use Drugs.

The UNODC staffer spoke to UN News ahead of World Hepatitis Day on 28 July about receiving his diagnosis during a needle exchange outreach programmme, in which people who use drugs can get clean and unused needles. 

Koketso Mukubani collects a methadone treatment at Sediba Hope.

Koketso Mukubani collects a methadone treatment at Sediba Hope.

“My mum died from HIV when I was 14. She was a single parent. That’s when I started using. It became too much for me. It was too much for my grandmother, too. 

After my mother died, in the span of a week we also lost my grandfather. My grandmother became an alcoholic and sold our house because she couldn’t live with the memories. 

At the time I was smoking weed because I was chubby and felt body-shamed a lot. I thought weed would help me to lose weight. But after my mother died, I started using more to cope, then drinking heavily, then I graduated to heroin and anything I could get my hands on.  

My life spiraled out of control. We moved to rural areas, and I couldn’t adjust. So, I fled and went to the streets. I was 20 years old.

‘I couldn’t hold back my tears’

I found out that I was hepatitis C positive in this building, the Sediba Hope Medical Center in Tshwane, just outside Pretoria.  In 2017, I was accessing the needle exchange outreach programme from peers at Marabastad. 

They told me about an initiative at Sediba Hope whereby they’d be taking our blood for which we would be paid.

At the medical center, I didn’t know what my blood was going to be used for. The motivation for me was money for the fix! So, I went. They explained they’d run an HIV test and screening for hepatitis B and C. 

World Hepatitis Day 2023

I got the shock of my life when I was told I was positive for hep C. I didn’t know what hepatitis was and was scared for my life.  They say men don’t cry but I couldn’t hold back my tears. 

The healthcare provider was compassionate. She calmed me down, explained what hepatitis was and that it’s manageable with a healthy lifestyle.  

I blamed myself. I got a disease through my reckless drug use.  

The prevalence of the disease among people who use drugs was 80 per cent then. 

I went back to the streets and kept using, but the diagnosis was in the back of my mind.  

Getting in control 

I wanted to get in control of my drug addiction, in better control of my health. I joined the Community Oriented Substance Use Programme at the University of Pretoria, where I started opioid substitution treatment (OST).  

I started taking methadone [a medication used to treat opioid use disorder]. They also took my blood to check for liver functionality.

I didn’t miss a single day. After completion of the 12-week programme, they took my blood again; I was clear of the virus. I also took the vaccine for hepatitis B.  

I was so jubilant and relieved because the programme had a family reintegration element. I started having a relationship with my loved ones again, but because of the stigma I did not disclose my medical status.  

My family found out when I was virus free. I’m happy they did when I was clean. Because the only thing I feared was the stigma. It has the potential to trigger me so much that I could go back to the streets or using even more than before.  

Inclusive approach

We need a comprehensive harm reduction package, readily available and easily accessible [in South Africa]. We need to scale-up needle exchange outreach programmes, opioid substitution treatments, and testing, too.  

We need to include people who use drugs in the planning and implementation of all initiatives that are associated with health, that are going to be delivered for them.  

They are so very important in debunking the myths and identifying beneficiaries for treatment. They should be employed for demand reduction work, for the campaigns, distributing the needles, etc.  

We [people who use drugs] do volunteer work, but it is real work. We deserve the same compensation as medical staff who do the same work.” 

Türk calls on Israeli Government to ‘heed the calls of the people’ over judicial reform

Volker Türk said he had been “following developments closely” in Israel, where parliamentarians supporting the hard-line nationalist Government of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu passed a bill on Monday which in effect strips the Supreme Court of its power to block Government decisions.

Opposition parties boycotted the vote which came after seven months of protests which have exposed a deep rift in Israeli society broadly along the religious-secular divide. Demonstrators said they would continue their action, claiming the country’s whole democratic future is at stake.

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Alliance ‘for the defence of democracy’

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said that “people from across society have been demonstrating peacefully, building alliances for the defence of democracy and fundamental freedoms.”

He described the protests as an effort to “preserve the democratic space and constitutional balance so painstakingly built in Israel over many decades. It demonstrates the extent of public disquiet at the extent of fundamental legislative changes.”

With just the first stage in the proposed legislative changes now on the statute books, Mr. Türk noted that petitions have already been filed before the Supreme Court itself, which supporters hope will quash the legislative effort.

‘Space to decide’

He said it was “essential that the Court is afforded full space to decide the questions before it, according to due process of law, and free from political pressure or interference from any other quarter.”

He said the “movement” against the parliamentary bid to curb court powers, was based on “people who have put their trust in the enduring value of an independent judiciary to effectively hold the other branches of Government to fundamental legal standards and – ultimately – protect the rights of all people.”

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